Collective agreement: The collective agreement is a set of applicable graduation and employment conditions that are concluded between a trade union on behalf of its members and the employer (or a group of employers) and that govern the conditions of employment of the workers concerned, usually for a certain period of time (Fashoyin, 1992). The agreement applies to workers at more than 300 Unilever factories in 69 countries, whether employed directly by Unilever or through a third party. Although the concept of collective bargaining has been used to cover bargaining between employees as a group and employers, nowhere has collective bargaining been explicitly formally defined (Otobo, 1987) After Sydney and Beatrice Webb (1902), collective bargaining is in the sense of multi-party participation in the form of decision-making on a wide range of topics that concern all parties in the sectors. The nature of the problems which at any given time are the subject of attention by several parties depends on the specificities of the sector concerned. For networks, collective bargaining is simply an alternative to individual bargaining. Clearly recognizing the dynamism of social interaction, webbs emphasized the temporary nature of the establishment in the industry. „Respect the right of workers to join or not to join a trade union recognized by law or any other body representing their collective interests, and engage in constructive dialogue and negotiate in good faith with trade unions or representative bodies on terms and conditions of employment, labour relations and matters of mutual interest, to the extent that this is feasible in accordance with national laws`. Bargaining power: This is the ability of a party to the negotiations to reach an agreement on its own terms or on a point close to its preferred position. As part of the agreement, Unilever recognises the key role of trade unions and collective bargaining in protecting and realizing fundamental workers` rights. The agreement imposes a process of continued human rights vigilance through engagement and negotiation with the IUF and IndustriALL and its members, who represent the vast majority of unionized Unilever workers worldwide. Negotiation: the notion of negotiation refers to a particular process of dialogue between people in order to resolve their difference and reach an agreement, and in labour relations this is mainly done by representatives of management and workers. Collective bargaining is therefore bargaining on subjects in which the union and management are different.
In state-owned enterprises, collective bargaining operates according to rules established by law, public order and administrative directives. .